Many have heard about black holes, those strange formations that occur in our universe. According to some studies, black holes are created after a supernova, a process that follows the creation of a black mass characterized by extremely large amount of gravitational pull. Black holes are able to pull and destroy any planet, asteroid or any other cosmic object if their location is near them. If Earth would be near a black hole, than the results would be catastrophic. But, what would have happened if Earth would be near a wormhole? In that case, our lives would be much more interesting.

Worm holes

Figure_01 | The schematic image of a wormhole. The tunnel shortens the distance between point A and point B. (Source: http://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com)

Wormholes are not to be confused with black holes. They are of a different nature, something like hypothetic portals that can give access to traveling through space-time (Taylor Redd, 2015). Let’s say that space is like the green grid shown in the picture above and time is like small strings that model it. If the grid is flat means that time over that space flows like it usually does in our daily lives. If the grid of space is flat, point A and point B are characterized by a certain distance. That means that if we want to go from point A to point B, we have to travel along the road that connects these points. All that is based on simple physical laws, easily observable in our daily routine. But, what would have happened if the flat grid of space begins to wrap? At this point, everything changes. Time flows differently, which means that strange phenomena begin to occur, different from what we are used to see or experience. Wormholes are thought to be one of the key factors that wrap space-time. At the moment that a wormhole appears, the distance between two points shortens. Time is also affected. Hypothetically that means large distances can be traveled by a ridiculously shorter time. Furthermore, it may be possible to travel through time.

How is all of this possible? The concept is simple. If we want to travel between two points far away from each other, we should stop trying to go faster, instead we should focus on manipulating the distance between these points; if we manage to bring those points closer to each other, than we can travel from one to another in a much shorter time. That is thought to happen when a wormhole appears. The concept becomes a bit more difficult if we try to imagine traveling through a wormhole that connects the same point. In this case, space does not change; it remains the same. It is time that becomes manipulated. We travel through, to arrive where we departed, but in a different era. If that idea would be correct and a wormhole appears near our planet, than we can travel through it, to arrive at our planet again, but at a different time, maybe at the era when Earth was populated by dinosaurs. There is no doubt that our lives would be much more interesting if a wormhole occurs somewhere near our solar system.

What it is known about traveling through a wormhole, if that would be possible, it is the danger of its sudden collapse, high radiation and dangerous contact with exotic1 matter.

Wormholes have been discovered theoretically as a contribution of Einstein and Nathan Rose work, which is why wormholes often are referred as Einstein-Rose bridges. These bridges exist only as results of math calculations, predicting their existence at microscopic levels, about 10-35 m (Barbier, 2001). The expansion of the universe has led to the idea that it would be possible to exist wormholes at larges dimensions.

Math is the most powerful weapon available to study the universe. If wormholes do exist according to mathematical calculations, then it is a matter of time until their physical observation. Despite that, even if wormholes are discovered, there are still questions unexplained. Are wormholes an artificial intervention causing an opposite reaction to the universe that tries to collapse them? Is it possible to travel through it if laws of physics do change? What does push the universe to maintain such a behavior toward a wormhole? Questions are what can be done until now.

Exotic matter, which should not be confused with dark matter or antimatter, contains negative energy density and a large negative pressure. Such matter has only been seen in the behavior of certain vacuum states as part of quantum field theory.1

References:

  • Dr.Barbier, L. (2001) – Interview, 2001
  • Dr. Christian, E (2005) – Interview, 2005
  • Taylor Redd, N.(2015) – Publisher to www.space.com
  • http://www.space.com/20881-wormholes.html
  • http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_sp_sl.html
  • Malik, T.(2015) – Publisher to www.space.com
  • NASA's Gravity Probe B (2005): Einstein's Spacetime
  • NASA's Cosmicopia (2005) : Wormholes
  • Thorne, K (1994) – Black holes and Timewarps, Einstein's Outrageous Legacy, W.W. Norton