“Everybody is a Genius. But If You Judge a Fish by Its Ability to Climb a Tree, It Will Live Its Whole Life Believing that It is Stupid” – Albert Einstein

 
 

 

Some of us are probably very good at learning new languages but not very good at solving mathematical problems. Or some others might be very good at painting but they do not have a clue on sports or music. Have you ever wondered, if they can still be considered intelligent? Gardner (1983) would say YES. He suggested that WE ARE ALL INTELIGENT IN A WAY OR ANOTHER!

Even today, there are still debates on how the concept of “Intelligence” should be defined. In thepast, it was believed that Intelligence is a General Mind Ability (Simon &Binet, 1911) – usually known as the G- Factor (Spearman, 1904) Therefore, in order for you to be considered intelligent, you would have to be good at almost everything.  How likely is that to happen in your case?

On the other hand, Gardner (1983) was the first to propose the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. According to Gardner (1983; 1993; 1999; 2006) all individuals possess eight or more relatively autonomous intelligences. Gardner developed the Theory of Multiple Intelligences because he strongly believed that the current psychometric tests only examined the linguistic, logical, and some aspects of spatial intelligence, whereas the other types of intelligent behaviors such as musical talent, and social awareness were not included (Neisser et al., 1996). Therefore, he developed the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, according to which, we are all intelligent in one or more types of Intelligence. He suggested eight different forms of intelligence such as the following: Mathematical-Logical Intelligence, Visual-Spatial, Intrapersonal Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence and Naturalist Intelligence.

Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence (“word smart” or “book smart”) – This type of intelligence refers to the knowing which comes through language, through reading, writing, and speaking. People with Verbal – Linguistic Intelligence are more likely to understand the order and meaning of words in both speech and writing and are able to properly use the language.

Mathematical-Logical Intelligence (“math smart” or “logic smart”) – This type of intelligence has high abilities in using numbers, math, and logic to find and understand the various patterns that occur in our lives: thought patterns, number patterns, visual patterns and color patterns. People who possess this type of intelligence resonate and calculate a lot. They like to experiment and think abstractly.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence (“art smart” or “picture smart”) – If you have Visual- Spatial intelligence you tend to think in images and pictures. You are likely very aware of object, shapes, colors, textures, and patterns in the environment around you. You probably like to draw, paint, and make interesting designs and patterns. People who have this kind of intelligence tend to have professions such as architects or engineers. They are able to think and perceive even millimeters.

Intrapersonal Intelligence (“self-smart” or “introspection smart”)- People who have this kind of intelligence know how to understand their own intentions and goals very well. They like independent learning and analyze themselves a lot. They are motivated and have a lot of self-confidence.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence ("body smart" or "movement smart") – Those who have this type of intelligence use the body effectively. Such may be athletes, dancers or aerobics. They like movement and communicate very well through body language. If you have strengths in this intelligence area you tend to have a keen sense of body awareness.

Interpersonal Intelligence(“people smart” or “group smart”) – People who have this kind of intelligence know how to understand and interact very well with others. They usually have a lot of friends and enjoy group activities.

Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence (“music smart” or “sound smart”)- This type of intelligence refers to the knowing that happens through sound and vibration. It is not limited to music and rhythm, it deals with the whole realm of sound, tones, beats, and vibrational patterns as well as music. Those who possess musical intelligence are people who show sensitivity to rhythm and sound.

Naturalist Intelligence (“nature smart” or “environment smart”) – People who have a special passion for the Flora and Fauna world are thought to possess this kind of intelligence. Those who have this kind of intelligence usually have a special interest in nature and can develop different professions like farmers or hunters.

 

COPYRIGHT: This article is property of We Speak Science, a non profit institution co-fonded by Dr. Detina Zalli (Harvard University) and Dr. Argita Zalli (Imperial College London). The article is written by Detina Zalli and Ilirjana Geci (University of Prishtina"Hasan Prishtina").

 

REFERENCES:

Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1911). A method of measuring the development of the intelligence of young children. Lincoln, IL: Courier Company.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences (10 anniversary ed.).

New York, NY: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1999). The disciplined mind: What all students should understand? New York:

Simon & Schuster

Gardner, H. (2006b). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic Books

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci, S. J., Halpern, D. F., Loehlin, J. C., Perloff, R., Sternberg, R. J., & Urbina, S. (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 77-101.

Spearman, Charles. (1904) General intelligence, objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology. 15, 201-293.