- Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by high glucose in your blood
- High glucose levels damages DNA bases and suppress their repair
- Instability of genome leads to cancer
Introduction – Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome which is characterized by hyperglicemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by pancreas, its chemical messenger like function allows cells to absorb glucose from the blood, furthermore insulin regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fat. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to destruction of insulin-secreting B cells in the pancreatic islets caused by T cell mediated autoimmune mechanisms which leads to profound insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes is known as a more complex condition than type 1 because in addition to impaired pancreatic B-cell function, resistance of insulin in liver and muscle appears too.The resistance is caused due to release of large quantities of free fatty acids from metabolically active adipose tissue which compete with glucose as a fuel supply for oxidation in muscles.. In addition to this, adipose-derived hormones such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin act on specific receptors in muscles and liver, affecting gluconeogenesis and hepatic lipid metabolism. This body cell resistance of insulin results in increased insulin production from beta cells of pancreas leading to hyperinsulinemia.
Statistics – Since Diabetes as a chronic metabolic disease leads to serious damage to the organs such as heart, eyes, kidneys, vessels as well as nerves, it seems to be a growing challenge in the world. . According to statistics, the most common type of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. According to WHO, 422 million people around the world have diabetes nowadays.  It is estimated that by 2045, number of people with living with diabetes will rise 629 million . Data are very concerning about cancer too; cancer as the second leading cause of death in the world is estimated to cause more than 9.6 million death in 2019.
Impact of high glucose on cancer development – One of the greatest challenge in the science was solving the mystery that confirms that people with diabetes have an increased risk of developing some forms of cancer such as: breast, ovarian, kidney cancer etc . The latest study of American Chemical Society confirms the mechanism that solves the mystery of how diabetes can increase cancer risk . Data found that high blood glucose is a damaging factor for DNA bases, since it causes chemical changes to them forming DNA adducts named N2(1-carboxyethyl)-2-deoxygasine (CEdG). People with diabetes had significantly higher levels of CedG than people without diabetes . In addition to this, in people with diabetes, there were found two proteins known as transcriptor factor HIF1-alfa which activates several genes involved in the repair process as well as Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein which activates HIF1-alfa . Both of them show less activity in people with diabetes, which allows adducts such as CEdG to not be fixed properly by the cells. The future is bright since many tests are getting done in mixing drugs that stabilize HIF1 or enhance mTORC1 with antidiabetic drugs.
This exciting study leads to better solution in the future for people with diabetes to reduce their cancer risk!
COPYRIGHT: This article is the property of We Speak Science, a non-profit institution co-founded by Dr. Detina Zalli and Dr. Argita Zalli. The article is written by Rexhep Sahatçiu, University of Prishtina, Kosovo.
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