Maybe, if you ask people, it’s difficult to find someone that does not understand what antibiotics are. It is difficult as well, to find someone who understands the difference between antibiotics, antibacterials and antimicrobics, which are not the same thing.  The difference between antibacterials and antibiotics is that antibacterials are not used as medicine, but in soap and cleaners. The substance against all microbes is only antimicrobic.This misunderstanding made people use antibiotics inappropriately.In USA 4 out of 5 Americans prescribed antibiotics each year. It is so widely used that it is becoming a concerning problem for the future management of bacterial infections and bacterial resistance.In any case, antibiotics have saved millions of lives since they were first discovered in XX century. Their applicability made them irreplaceable!

The antibiotics are used as:

  • Empirical therapy-when the responsible microorganism is not identified yet. So the doctor gives a broad spectrum of antibiotics.
  • Definitive therapy-when the responsible microorganism is identified. The doctor gives a therapy with a narrow spectrum of antibiotics.


  • Treatment– Bacterial infections, protozoan infections, immune modulation, non-complicated acute appendicitis.
  • Prevention of infections– Surgical wound, dental antibiotic prophylaxis, conditions of neutropenia.

Side effects of antibiotics include: fever, nausea, allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, diarrhea and many others.It may affect vaginal flora, or interact with other drugs as well .

Now it is proven in humans, that administration and usage of antibiotics in children before the age of 2, given on three or more courses, is associated with an increased risk of early childhood obesity. The new study is published in Gastroenterology, the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. The researchers from University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia performed a study in a large population-representative cohort study in the United Kingdom to prove the link between antibiotic exposure before age 2 and obesity at age 4. According to the study, children with antibiotic exposure had 1,2% absolute and 25% relative increase in the risk of early childhood obesity. The doctors support the theory that antibioticcompositions may alter the composition and function of the gut micro biome; this increases the risk, proven before in livestock. Antibiotics are prescribed in the US during an estimated 49 million pediatric outpatient visits each year.

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health issuesof the 21st century, according to World Health Organization. Obese children and teenagers are at an increased risk of developing various health problems, and are also more likely to become obese adults.So, this study should be an important message for thinking twice about antibiotic usage in infants, and to be aware of the indications before using them.

In preventing antibiotic resistance and obesity, we should  start from infants and children at an early age. It is better to prevent!