- Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world
- Microbiome positive changes may affect lung cancer progression
- Yogurt and high-diet fiber consumption nourishes good bacteria in our gut
Introduction – Lung cancer is a condition characterized by an uncontrollable cell division in the lungs. This uncontrollable cell growth leads to tumor which is caused due to somatic changes in the TP53(tumor protein 53), EGFR(epidermal growth factor receptor) and KRAS( KRAS proto-oncogene) genes, as well as due to many life style and environmental factors such as: smoking, air pollution, asbestos etc. ,. Cigarette smoking is considered to be the most important cause of lung cancer. It is believed to be responsible for at least 90% of lung carcinoma. The risk of lung cancer is proportional to the length of time and amount of smoked cigarettes. Stopping smoking significantly decreases chances of developing lung cancer. Based on the size of the affected cells when viewed under microscope, lung cancer is divided into two types:
- Small lung cancer, which is believed to arise in the central lung and to have a poor prognosis since it grows quickly and metastasizes commonly to the liver, brain and bones by the time it is diagnosed 
- Non-small lung cancer, which accounts for 85 percent of lung cancer, and based on the cells it arises it is dived into: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell lung carcinoma.
Statistics – Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men, and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Whereas, in the USA is the leading cause of death among both men and women. It is estimated that 142,670 deaths from this disease have occurred in this year. Changes in lifestyle tend to change mortality rates; due to a decrease in smoking, from 2012-2016 death rates for men have declined by 4 percent each year and 3% for women.
Diagnosing and Treatment – There are many clinical features doctor should be looking for in order to diagnose lung cancer. The most common early symptoms are a cough dry and hemoptysis, which are common especially with central bronchial tumors. These symptoms are followed by chest pain, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, tiredness, persistent lung infections etc . Lung cancer is treated in several ways based on the type of the lung cancer and its staging . People with lung cancer may be treated differently: with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy or a combination of these methods.
Latest research – Diet and nutrition recently turn to be very effective in lung cancer prevention since promoting a healthy gut microbiome helps in preserving host’s health.
Since the dietary fiber is the main source of prebiotics and a yogurt is a probiotic food, they bestow different health benefits because their consumption feeds healthy gut microbes The healthy gut microbes are a source of short-chain fatty acids that reduce inflammation and strength our immune system after they get absorbed into the blood stream ,. In order to find out the benefits of a diet high in fiber and yogurt and their association with reduced risk for lung cancer, a study involving 1.4 million adults in the USA, Europe and Asia was done in Vanderbilt University Medical Center.According to the amount of fiber they consumed, participants were divided in five different groups. Data say that people with the highest consumption of fibers had 17% lower risk of lung cancer, whereas people who ate the high amount of yogurt had 19% lower risk to develop lung cancer compared to those that don’t eat it. When consider jointly, people with the highest amount of fiber and yogurt consumption tend to lower their chances of lung cancer by 33%,.
Conclusion After measuring the dietary fiber intake and yogurt consumption by validated instruments, we can conclude that high-fiber diet and yogurt consumption are associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. This study proves that prebiotics and probiotics have a potential role against lung carcinoma by modulating gut microbiota in a profitable way.
COPYRIGHT: This article is the property of We Speak Science, a non-profit institution co-founded by Dr. Detina Zalli and Dr. Argita Zalli. The article is written by Rexhep Sahatçiu, University of Prishtina, Kosovo.
3. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine