Cerebrovascular diseases are a major cause of death in the developed world.

Three main pathogenic mechanisms are:

  1. Thrombotic occlusion
  2. Embolic occlusion
  3. Vascular rupture

Stroke is the clinical term for all these conditions when symptoms begin acutely.

There are two types of stroke: ischemic due to lack of blood flow and hemorrhagic. Thrombosis and embolism cause loss of oxygen and metabolic substrates resulting in infarction or ischemic injury in the regions supplied by damaged vessel. Similar injury occurs globally in severe hypoxemia or profound hypoglycemia. 

Hemorrhage occurs when blood vessels are ruptured and leads to direct tissue injury and secondary ischemia.

Embolic infarctions are more common than infarctions due to thrombosis. Cardiac mural thrombi, valvular disease are important predisposing factors for embolic infarctions.

Thrombotic occlusions usually are superimposed on atherosclerotic plaques.

stroke brain

Main risk factor that can cause a stroke are:

  1. High blood pressure
  2. Tobacco smoking
  3. Diabetes mellitus
  4. Atrial fibrillation
  5. Trauma (bone trauma can cause fat embolism)

It is very important to know the symptoms of a stroke and in this way we will help in time patients!

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF A STROKE:

  1. Sudden and severe headache with no other cause followed by loss of consciousness (indication of a stroke due to bleeding)
  2. Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg.
  3. Sudden loss of balance, possibly accompanied by vomiting, nausea.
  4. Altered smell, taste, hearing or vision (total or partial)
  5. Dropping of eyelid, ptosis.
  6. Trouble with speaking and understanding (the patient may slur words or have difficulty understanding speech).

 

WHEN WE SHOULD CALL 911 IMMEDIATELY?

Think FAST:

FACE: ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?

ARMS: ask the person to rise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? Or is one arm unable to rise up?

SPEECH: ask the person to repeat a single phrase. Is his/her speech strange or slurred?

TIME: IF YOU OBSERVE ONE OF THESE SIGN CALL 911 IMMEDIATELY.

Is very important a pay attention to all symptoms that a person may present and call immediately 911. Treating in time this situation can save peoples life!

REFERENCES:

  • http://www.webmd.com/stroke/guide/understanding-stroke-symptoms
  • http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/home/ovc-20117264
  • http://heart.arizona.edu/heart-health/preventing-stroke/lowering-risks-stroke
  • http://www.mayo

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