University of Colorado scientists have identified a minute particle inside a protein that is responsible for human intelligence. Researchers suggest that this microscopic molecule makes the human to become the most intelligent creature on earth, stressing that DUF1220 can explain why human brains are bigger and more complex than any other animals. Compared with other species, human brain’s ratio to body size is significantly larger and has a much greater cerebral cortex, the area that has a higher concentration of neurons and controls higher thought processes. The size and cognitive capacity of the human brain impressed scientist to do such a study, trying to know how that happened. Humans have more than 270 copies of DUF1220 (protein domain issue) encoded in their DNA, which are far more than other species. This study revealed a link between the number of DUF1220s and size of brain, indicating that these factors play a key role in intelligence score of different species or within the human population. Scientist also noticed that the more copies of DUF1220 in the genome, the bigger the brain. bThey associated lower numbers of DUF1220 with microcephaly, when the brain is too small, and larger amounts with macrocephaly, when the brain is abnormally large. This discovery opens many new doors. It provides new tools to diagnose diseases related to brain size and also to copy these proteins in body in order to make people more intelligent.

From above mentioned studies we comprehend that proteins plays an important role in intelligence.

In the other side scientists have discovered 4 genes that are responsible for intelligence: 1) STX1A, 2) ATXN1 3). TRIM31 and 4). NPTN gene that may account for more than 15% of the variation in IQ among those people with William’s Syndrome and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Scientists hope that the strong correlation between these genes and intelligence may provide insight into the general population as well. If it does, the gene may give us the means to predict, analyze, and even enhance your IQ.

Intelligence is a complex property that can be difficult to measure, and it's likely that the inheritable component of intelligence involves many genes interacting with one another.

Single gene mutation is not going to affect intelligence, but a group of genes mutations are responsible for general intelligence. Once the Genes – IQ correlation is fully understood, it could lead to gene (or protein) therapies that give anyone without the "smarter" variation a boost in intelligence. We're talking about the possibility of a real nootropic therapy that could affect a huge portion of the population.

Yet we all have the STX1A gene, and there's no doubt it plays an important role in everyone's brain. The gene codes for proteins that regulate the availability of neurotransmitters in our nerve cells.

DNA sequencing study of genome (genome scan) may help to find which parts of genome (or low one) are responsible for intelligence. Especially samples of DNA taken from the most intelligent people and comparing them with people of normal intelligence may help us to explain a differences between DNA and genes of both group.

It's important to point out that intelligence is influenced by many genetic and environmental factors and we can conclude that synaptic plasticity (how neurons communicate) has the biggest impact in general intelligence, meaning that the faster(and more ) they communicate the more intelligent we are.

References:

  • http://singularityhub.com/2010/04/22/gene-for-intelligence-revealed-by-studying-williams-syndrome/
  • http://io9.com/5909928/the-genes-behind-human-intelligence-also-made-us-vulnerable-to-autism
  • http://blogs.dnalc.org/2012/11/13/brain-size-and-intelligence-why-a-human-is-smarter-than-a-mouse/
  • http://www.presstv.com/detail/2012/08/21/257423/tiny-protein-responsible-for-intelligence/
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302343
  • http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/5974/20140211/researchers-find-gene-links-grey-matter-intelligence.htm

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